This Note explores the reasoning and factors used by each of the federal circuits in deciding whether or not to uphold attorney-client privilege between the government and the lawyers representing it.
Jacqueline M. Fitch
This Note considers whether, under the direct effect clause of the FSIA commercial activities exception, a foreign sovereign must have minimum contacts with the United States in order for a U.S. court to assert personal jurisdiction over the entity.
Leah D. Williams
On August 9, 1865, just five days after Lee was installed as Washington College President,10 my third great-grandparents Robert and Emeline Parker signed their first labor contract as free people. Their written mark was recorded on an agreement to work on the same Mississippi plantation they were sold to by the school. That contract signifies […]
It is time for Washington and Lee University to drop both George Washington and Robert E. Lee from the University name. The predominantly White faculty at Washington and Lee recently announced that it will petition the Board of Trustees to remove Lee from the University name. This is the first time in Washington and Lee’s […]
Charles L. Slamowitz
This article takes an approachable, forward-thinking, and academic dive into congressional insider trading in the wake of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. After a confidential briefing by the Senate Health Committee warned of COVID-19, massive stock sell-offs by members of Congress and their spouses suddenly ensued. Some senators even publicly disparaged COVID-19’s viral effects while their […]
Shaakirrah R. Sanders
I join Carliss Chatman’s call to fully consider the equal protection implications of the conception theory and raise an additional right to which a fetus may be entitled as a matter of equal protection: health care, which implicates state laws that provide civil and criminal exemptions to parents who choose religious healing instead of medical […]
Robert Gatter & Seema Mohapatra
As states begin to loosen their COVID-19 restrictions, public debate is underway about what public health measures are appropriate. Many states have some form of mask-wearing orders to prevent the spread of COVID-19 infection. Public health guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization has conflicted. From a public […]
Stephen E. Smith
Maintaining social distance in the time of COVID-19 is a public health priority. A crowded courtroom is an environment at odds with public health needs. Accordingly, until science determines otherwise, it will be necessary for judges to manage courtroom attendance and exclude the public from trials, wholly or in part. Courtrooms may be closed to […]
In his note, Ryan Johnson drills down on the various ways that courts within the Second Circuit are approaching the viability of § 1983 lawsuits by incarcerated individuals against supervisors within correctional facilities. But how important is supervisory liability in the first place? Qualified immunity allows courts, as Mr. Johnson puts it, to “cop-out” from […]
Carliss N. Chatman
Alabama has joined the growing number of states determined to overturn Roe v. Wade by banning abortion from conception forward. The Alabama Human Life Protection Act subjects a doctor who performs an abortion to as many as ninety-nine years in prison. The law has no exceptions for rape or incest. It redefines an “unborn child, child or […]
Helen M. Alvaré
It is pointless to approach Professor Chatman’s argument on its own terms (to wit, “tak[ing] our laws seriously,” or equal application across myriad legal categories of “full personhood” rights) because these terms are neither seriously intended nor legally comprehensible.
Anthony Michael Kreis
Carliss Chatman’s If a Fetus Is a Person, It Should Get Child Support, Due Process and Citizenship brilliantly captures the moment America is in, where abortion rights hang in the balance as state legislators, like those in Alabama, Georgia, Ohio, and elsewhere clamor to embrace fetal personhood.
Paul J. Larkin Jr.
State lawmakers should allow those graduates to receive a provisional license so that they can provide emergency medical care under the supervision of a licensed physician to help treat the ever-increasing number of COVID-19 patients we will see throughout the near future, or those patients who suffer from more common illness and injuries.
Scott R. Thomas & Mystica M. Alexander
In an effort to address gun violence, activists and victims’ families have filed lawsuits against the firearms industry seeking damage awards for violence committed by third party unrelated actors.
Daniel M. Coble
At the age of 17, Donte Lamar Jones shot and killed a store clerk as she laid down on the floor during a robbery. He was spared the death penalty by agreeing instead to die in prison at the end of his life.
Bridget J. Crawford
The word “trust” has multiple meanings. In everyday speech, it refers to a feeling of confidence associated with integrity, such as trusting that a friend will keep a secret. In the financial context, some law students, lawyers and lucky individuals also understand that a trust is a near-magical device that splits legal and equitable title.
M. Claire Flowers
Multiple federal courts have recognized and applied the inevitable disclosure doctrine in cases brought by employers against former employees under the DTSA. The inevitable disclosure doctrine allows a business to temporarily enjoin the new employment of a former employee by a competitor on the theory that the employee learned confidential information while working for that […]
This Essay responds to comments by Samuel Calhoun, Wayne Barnes, and David Smolin, made as part of a roundtable discussion on Calhoun’s symposium address Separation of Church and State: Jefferson, Lincoln, and the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., Show It Was Never Intended to Separate Religion from Politics. In Part I, I discuss current events, especially as they pertain to Smolin’s comments. In Part II, I answer Calhoun’s challenges to my own response. In Part III, I criticize Barnes’s response, which was diametrically different from my own. In Part IV, I draw on Smolin’s observations to discuss the path forward for Christians in the current climate.
Wayne R. Barnes, Citation: Wayne R. Barnes, Reconsidering Christianity as a Support for Secular Law: A Final Reply to Professor Calhoun, 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 599 (2018).
This symposium has revolved around Professor Calhoun’s article, which posits that it is completely legitimate, in proposing laws and public policies, to argue for them in the public square based on overtly religious principles. In my initial response, I took issue with his argument that no reasons justify barring faith-based arguments from the public square […]
Samuel W. Calhoun, Citation: Samuel W. Calhoun, If Separation of Church and State Doesn’t Demand Separating Religion from Politics, Does Christian Doctrine Require It?, 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 565 (2018).
This Essay responds to comments by Wayne Barnes, Ian Huyett, and David Smolin on my prior Article, Separation of Church and State: Jefferson, Lincoln, and the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., Show It Was Never Intended to Separate Religion from Politics. Part II, although noting a few disagreements with Huyett and Smolin, principally argues that […]
Kristine L. Bowman, Citation: 75 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 61 (2018).
Ongoing education reform litigation arising out of Detroit, Michigan presents an innovative claim: Children have an unenumerated federal constitutional right of access to literacy. On June 29, 2018, the district court granted defendants’ motion to dismiss. The case is now on appeal to the Sixth Circuit and is expected to be argued in the first […]
Margaret Ryznar, Citation: 75 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 53 (2018).
Recently, legislative efforts have taken aim at sexual harassment in the workplace. Among these may be a surprising but effective approach—disallowing tax deductions for sexual harassment settlements subject to non-disclosure agreements. This Essay analyzes such a 2017 tax reform provision.
Ian Huyett, Citation: Ian Huyett, Church History, Liberty, and Political Morality: A Response to Professor Calhoun, 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 546 (2018).
In his address, Professor Calhoun used American Christian abolitionism to illustrate the beneficial role that religion can play in political debate. Surveying the past two millennia, I argue that Christian political thought has protected liberty in every era of the church’s dramatic history. Along the way, I rebut critics—from the left and right—who urge that […]
Christopher W. Schmidt , Citation: 75 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 33 (2018).
In this Essay, I argue that originalism conflicts with the Supreme Court’s current jurisprudence defining the scope of Congress’ power to enforce the Fourteenth Amendment. Under the standard established in Boerne v. Flores, the Court limits congressional power under Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment to statutory remedies premised on judicially defined interpretations of Fourteenth […]
David M. Smolin, Citation: David M. Smolin, America's Creed: The Inevitable, Sometimes Dangerous, Mixing of Religion and Politics, 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 512 (2018).
Political and philosophical theorists have often advocated for the exclusion of some or all religious perspectives from full participation in politics. Such approaches create criteria—such as public accessibility, public reason, or secular rationale—to legitimate such exclusion. During the 1990s I argued, as an evangelical Christian, against such exclusionary theories, defending the rights to full and […]
Wayne R. Barnes, Citation: Wayne R. Barnes, The Paradox of Christian-Based Political Advocacy: A Reply to Professor Calhoun, 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 489 (2018).
Professor Calhoun, in his Article around which this symposium is based, has asserted that it is permissible for citizens to publicly argue for laws or public policy solutions based on explicitly religious reasons. Calhoun candidly admits that he has “long grappled” with this question (as have I, though he for longer), and, in probably the […]
Julian Redmond Murphy , Citation: 75 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 1 (2018).
In recent years body-worn cameras have been championed by community groups, scholars, and the courts as a potential check on police misconduct. Such has been the enthusiasm for body-worn cameras that, in a relatively short time, they have been rolled out to police departments across the country. Perhaps because of the optimism surrounding these devices […]
Samuel W. Calhoun
This Essay argues that it’s perfectly fine for religious citizens to openly bring their faith-based values to public policy disputes. Part II demonstrates that the Founders, exemplified by Thomas Jefferson, never intended to separate religion from politics. Part III, focusing upon Abraham Lincoln’s opposition to slavery, shows that religion and politics have been continuously intermixed […]
Rene Reyes, Citation: 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 450 (2018)
The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court (“SJC”) recently declared that the Commonwealth’s statutory ban on stun guns violates the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The SJC had previously upheld the statute against constitutional challenge in Commonwealth v. Caetano, but the reasoning behind this holding was rejected in a brief per curium opinion by the U.S. […]
Darrell A. H. Miller, Citation: 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 438 (2018)
William Araiza’s insightful article, Arming the Second Amendment, has one essential, hidden component: dignity. Dignity helps explain the peculiar hydraulics of Congress’s power to enforce section five of the Fourteenth Amendment—a jurisprudence in which the less scrutiny the Court itself applies to a given class or right, the more scrutiny it applies to congressional efforts […]
Eve Hanan, Citation: 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 420 (2018)
Stories abound of public defenders who, overwhelmed with high caseloads, allow defendants to languish in pre-trial detention and guilty pleas to be entered without examining the merits of the case. Most defendants cannot afford to hire an attorney, and, thus, have no choice other than to accept the public counsel appointed by the court. In […]
Carl Tobias, Citation: 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 400 (2018)
President Donald Trump constantly reminds United States citizens about the myriad circuit and district court appointments that his White House is making to the federal judiciary. Last September, Trump proposed the seventh “wave,” which included three people of color among sixteen judicial nominees. This wave permitted the administration to triple the number of ethnic minority […]
William D. Araiza, Citation: 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 383 (2018)
This Response considers Evan Zoldan’s argument, set forth in his recently-published Article, that one can find a coherent principle underlying the vexing case of United States v. Klein in the idea that government is prohibited from what Zoldan calls “self-dealing.” The promise is a seductive one: Klein, and in particular its language prohibiting Congress from […]
Christopher C. Brewer, Citation: 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 337 (2018)
Martha G. Vazquez, Citation: 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 281 (2018)
Thomas M. DiBiagio, Citation: 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 256 (2018)
A fundamental principle of criminal law is that to hold a defendant accountable, the prosecution must prove that he culpably participated in the criminal activity. To prove culpable participation, the government can prove a defendant’s direct knowledge of and active participation in the criminal conduct. However, because of the nature of financial crimes and corporate […]
Benjamin M. Flowers, Citation: 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 248 (2018)
The constitutional-doubt canon instructs that statutes should be interpreted in a way that avoids placing their constitutionality in doubt. This canon is often said to rest on the presumption that Congress does not intend to exceed its constitutional authority. That presumption, however, is inconsistent with the notion that government actors tend to exceed their lawful […]
Wendy Gerwick Couture, Citation: 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 234 (2018)
In Securities Regulation in Virtual Space, Eric. C. Chaffee explores the potential applicability of the securities laws to virtual transactions based on virtual activity and argues that, although many of these transactions likely qualify as “investment contracts” under S.E.C. v. W.J. Howey Co., they should be excluded under the context clause because, among other reasons, […]
Michael F. Dearington, Citation: 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 204 (2017)
Last year, the United States Supreme Court decided a Hobbs Act conspiracy case that could significantly expand the bounds of the general federal conspiracy statute. In Ocasio v. United States, 136 S. Ct. 1423 (2016), the Court held that, under “age-old principles of conspiracy law,” a police officer could conspire with shop owners to extort […]
Matthew C. Donahue, Citation: 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 146 (2017)
Peter T. Thomas, Citation: 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 215 (2017).
Kevin Barry & Bharat Malkani, Citation: Kevin Barry & Bharat Malkani, The Death Penalty's Darkside: A Response to Phyllis Goldfarb's Matters of Strata: Race, Gender, and Class Structures in Capital Cases, 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 184 (2017), http://scholarlycommons.law.wlu.edu/wlulr-online/vol74/iss1/9.
In Matters of Strata: Race, Gender, and Class Structures in Capital Cases, Professor Phyllis Goldfarb examines the ways in which race, class, and gender affect the American criminal justice system generally, and its death penalty system in particular. This Response focuses on one of Goldfarb’s observations: The relationship between slavery and the death penalty. This […]
Spencer T. Wiles, Citation: 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 103 (2017).
Danielle Weatherby, Terri Day, Citation: 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 86 (2017)
Next term, in Masterpiece Cakeshop v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission, the Supreme Court will consider whether a baker’s religious objection to same-sex marriage justifies his violation of Colorado’s public accommodation law in refusing to bake a cake for a same-sex wedding. At the centerpiece of Masterpiece Cakeshop is a clash between the First Amendment’s Free […]
Carl Tobias, Citation: Carl Tobias, Nominate Judge Koh to the Ninth Circuit Again, 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 64 (2017).
During February 2016, President Barack Obama nominated United States District Judge Lucy Haeran Koh to a “judicial emergency” vacancy on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. She has capably served over multiple years in the Northern District of California competently deciding numerous high-profile lawsuits, specifically regarding intellectual property. Accordingly, the President’s […]
Elayne E. Greenberg, Citation: 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 47 (2017)
The Online Journal requested that I evaluate Professor Strong’s empirical research, “Realizing Rationality: An Empirical Assessment of International Commercial Mediation,” reported in 23 Wash. & Lee. L. Rev. 1973 (2016). The purpose of Professor Strong’s research is to help “fill the informational gap” about international commercial mediation for the United Nations Commission on International Trade […]
Edward D. Cavanagh, Citation: Edward D. Cavanagh, Mandating Rule 11 Sanctions? Here We Go Again!, 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 31 (2017)
The House of Representatives has passed H.R. 720, a bill that would amend Rule 11 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure by re‑instituting mandatory sanctions for Rule 11 violations and essentially restoring Rule 11 to its contents under the 1983 amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The legislation would mandate imposition of […]
Johanna Bond, Citation: Johanna Bond, Zika, Feminism, and the Failures of Health Policy, 73 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 841 (2017)
The Zika epidemic caused serious concerns about fetal health throughout Latin America and some southern states in the United States. The prevailing governmental response throughout the region continues to emphasize two disease control factors: pregnancy delay and mosquito abatement. This essay argues that the current health policy approach of the World Health Organization, the Centers […]
Carl Tobias, Citation: 74 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 9 (2017)
Now that President Donald Trump has commenced the fifth month of his administration, federal courts experience 121 circuit and district court vacancies. These statistics indicate that Mr. Trump has a valuable opportunity to approve more judges than any new President. The protracted open judgeships detrimentally affect people and businesses engaged in federal court litigation, because […]
Joan MacLeod Heminway, Citation: 73 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. Online 829 (2017)